Santiago Hernández León


Dr. Santiago Hernández-León is a biological oceanographer at the Institute of Oceanography and Global Change in the Canary Islands. He obtained the degree in biology in 1980, master thesis in 1982, and received a Ph.D in Oceanography in 1986 from the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands). He is professor (chair) of zoology in the Marine Sciences School at the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. He was Vice-Dean of this Faculty from 1994 to 1998, and Dean from 2004 to 2005. His research interest is related to the effect of climate on the ecology and physiology of plankton communities. He has been working on the role of micro-, mesozooplankton and micronekton in the oceanic carbon flux from the Arctic to Antarctica, but he is especially interested in the assessment of the active flux due to vertical migrants in subtropical waters. He is also interested in the study of trophic cascades and how they affect the ocean biogeochemistry.

Research interests: 
  • Biological Oceanography
  • Zooplankton Physiology
  • Ecology

Recent publications

Couret Huertas, M., Landeira, J.M., Santana del Pino, A., Hernández León, S. 2023 A 50-year (1971-2021) mesozooplankton biomass data collection in the Canary Current System: base line, gaps, trends, and future prospect

Couret, M., Landeira, J.M., Tuset, V., Sarmiento Lezcano, A.N., Vélez-Belchí, P., Hernández León, S. 2023. Mesozooplankton size structure in the Canary Current System

Sarmiento Lezcano, A., Busquets Vass, G., Rubio Rodríguez, U. Olivar, P., Peña, M., Medina Suárez, Il, González Rodríguez, E., Gómez Guitérrez, J., Hernández León, S. 2022. Active flux seasonality of the small dominant migratory crustaceans and mesopelagic fishes in the Gulf of California during June and October

Marro, P., Mrich, Hiba, Díaz Pérez, J., Landeira, J. M., Vélez Belchi, P., Hernández León, S. 2022. Zooplankton biomass, ETS activity and respiratory flux around the Canary Islands

Saba, G. K., Burd, A. B., Dunne, J. P., Hernández-León, S., Martín, A. H., Rose, K. A., Salisbury, J., Steinberg, D. K., Trueman, C. N., Wilson, R. W., Wilson, S. E., 2021. Toward a better understanding of fish‐based contribution to ocean carbon flux. Limnology and Oceanography, 66 (5), 1639-1664.

Bode, A., Olivar, M. P., Hernández-León, S., 2021. Trophic indices for micronektonic fishes reveal their dependence on the microbial system in the North Atlantic. Scientific reports, 11 (1), 1-10.

Bode, A., Olivar, M. P., López-Pérez, C., Hernández-León, S., 2021. The microbial contribution to the trophic position of stomiiform fishes. ICES Journal of Marine Science.

Armengol, L., Franchy, G., Ojeda, A., Hernández-León, S., 2020. Plankton Community Changes From Warm to Cold Winters in the Oligotrophic Subtropical Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:677.

Hernández-León, S., Kooplemann, R., Fraile-Nuez, E., Bode, A., Mompeán, C., Irigoien, X., Olivar, M. P., Echevarría, F., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Gordillo, J. I., Cózar, A., Acuña, J. L., Agusti, S., Duarte, C. M., 2020. Large deep-sea zooplankton biomass mirrors primary production in the global ocean. Nature communications, 11 (1), 1-8.

Marrero-Betancort, N., Marcello, J., Rodríguez-Esparragón, D., Hernández-León, S., 2020. Wind variability in the Canary Current during the last 70 years. Ocean Science, 16, 951–963.

Armengol, L., Calbet, A., Franchy, G., Rodríguez-Santos, A., Hernández-León, S., 2019. Planktonic food web structure and trophic transfer efficiency along a productivity gradient in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Scientific Reports 9, 2044.

Báez-Hernández, M., García, N., Menéndez, I., Jaramillo, A., Sánchez-Pérez, I., Santana, A., Alonso, I., Mangas, J., Hernández-León, S., 2019. Interaction of sinking behaviour of Saharan dust and lithogenic and biogenic fluxes in the Canary Basin. Scientia Marina 83:2.

Fernández de Puelles, M.L., Gazá, M., Cabanellas-Reboredo, M., Santandreu, M.M., Irigoien, X., González-Gordillo, J.I., Duarte, C.M., Hernández-León, S., 2019. Zooplankton Abundance and Diversity in the Tropical and Subtropical Ocean. Diversity 11(11), 203.

Hernández-León, S. Putzeys, S., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Marrero-Díaz, A., Arístegui, J., Yebra, L., 2019. Carbon export through zooplankton active flux in the Canary Current. Journal Of Marine Systems, 189, 12-21.

Hernández-León, S., Olivar, M.P., Fernández de Puelles, M.L., Bode, A., Castellón, A., López-Pérez, C., Tuset, V.M., González-Gordillo, J.I., 2019. Zooplankton and Micronekton Active Flux Across the Tropical and Subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science-Marine Biogeochemistry , 6:535.

Hernández-León, S., Calleja, S., Fernández de Puelles, M.L., 2019. The estimation of metabolism in the mesopelagic zone: Disentangling deep-sea zooplankton respiration. Progress in Oceanography, 178.

Herrera, I., Yebra, L., Antezana, T., Giraldo, A., Färber-Lorda, J., Hernández-León, S., 2019. Vertical variability of Euphausia distinguenda metabolic rates during diel migration into the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico. Journal of Plankton Research, 41:2, 165-176.

Rodríguez-Esparragón, D., Marrero Betancort, N., Marcello, J., Hernández-León, S., 2019. Chlorophyll-a estimation from remote sensing data of sea surface temperature and aerosol optical thickness through a shallow neural network. 2019 International Conference in Engineering Applications (ICEA), 1-5.

Olivar, M. P., Bode, A., López-Pérez, C., Hulley, P.A., Hernández-León, S., 2019. Trophic position of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic estimated using stable isotopes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 76(3), 649-661.

Sánchez-Garrido, J.C., Werner, F.E., Fiechter, J., Rose, K.A., Curchitser, E.N., Ramos, A., García Lafuente, J., Arístegui, J., Hernández-León, S., Rodríguez Santana, A., 2019. Decadal-scale variability of sardine and anchovy simulated with an end-to-end coupled model of the Canary Current ecosystem. Progress in Oceanography, 171, 212-230.

Bode, A., Hernández-León, S., 2018. Trophic Diversity of Plankton in the Epipelagic and Mesopelagic Layers of the Tropical and Equatorial Atlantic Determined with Stable Isotopes. Diversity, 10(2), 48.

Fernández de Puelles, M.L., Gazá, M., Santander, M.M., Hernández-León, S., 2018. Chapter 3 - Global Distribution of Tropical and Subtropical Copepods in Marco Uttieri (Ed.) Trends in Copepod Studies - Distribution, Biology and Ecology, (pp.43-57). Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York.

Armengol, L., Franchy, G., Ojeda, A., Santana-del Pino, A., Hernández-León, S., 2017. Effects of copepods on natural microplankton communities: do they exert top-down control? Marine Biology, 164:136.

Herrera, I., López-Cancio, J., Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., 2017. The effect of a strong warm winter on subtropical zooplankton biomass and metabolism. Journal of Marine Research, 75(5), 557-577.

Landeira, J. M., Brochure, T., Mason, E., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2017. Transport pathways of decapod larvae under intense mesoscale activity in the Canary-African coastal transition zone: implications for population connectivity. Scientia Marina, 81(3), 299-315. http://

Yebra, L., Kobari, T., Sastri, A. R., Gusmão, F., Hernández-León, S., 2017. Chapter Four - Advances in Biochemical Indices of Zooplankton Production. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Barbara E. Curry (eds.). Academic Press. Volume 76, 157-240.

Ariza, A., Landeira, J. M ., Escánez, A ., Wienerroither, R ., Aguilar de Soto, N ., Røstad, A., Kaartvedt, S., Hernández-León, S., 2016. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands. Journal of Marine Systems, 157, 82-91.

Fernández-Castro, B., Arístegui, J., Anderson, L., Montero, M. F., Hernández León, S., Marañón, E., Mouriño Carballido, B., 2016. Mesopelagic respiration near the ESTOC (European Station for Time-Series in the Ocean, 15.5°W, 29.1°N) site inferred from a tracer conservation model. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, vol. 115, 63-73.

Jaramillo-Vélez, A., Inmaculada Menéndez, I., Alonso, I., Mangas, J., Hernández-León, S., 2016. Grain size, morphometry and mineralogy of airborne input in the Canary basin: evidence of iron particle retention in the mixed layer. Sci. Mar. 80(3): 395-408.

Olivar, M., González-Gordillo, J. I., Salat, J., Chust, G., Cózar, A., Hernández-León, S., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., Irigoien X., 2015. The contribution of migratory mesopelagic fishes to neuston fish assemblages across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Marine and Freshwater Research, 67(8), 1114-1127.

Ariza, A., Garijo, J. C., Landeira, J. M., Bordes, F., Hernández-León, S., 2015. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Progress in Oceanography, 134, 330-342.

Berraho, A., Somoue, L., Hernández-León, S., Valdés, L., 2015. Zooplankton in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem. In: Oceanographic and biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Valdés, L. and Déniz-González, I (eds). IOC-UNESCO, Paris. IOC Technical Series, No. 115, 183-195.

Garijo, J. C., Hernández-León, S., 2015. The use of an image-based approach for the assessment of zooplankton physiological rates: a comparison with enzymatic methods. Journal of Plankton Research, 37(5), 923-938.

Ariza, A., Kaartvedt, S., Røstad, A., Garijo, J.C., Arístegui, J., Fraile-Nuez, E., Hernández-León, S. (2014). The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102354.

Cózar, A., Echevarría, F., González-Gordillo, J. I., Irigoien, X., Úbeda, B., Hernández-León, S., Palma, A. T., Navarro, S., García-de-Lomas, J., Ruiz, A., Fernández-de-Puelles, M. L., M. Duarte, C., 2014. Plastic debris in the open ocean. PNAS, 111(28).

García Muñoz, C., García, C. M., Lubián, L. M., López-Urrutia, A., Hernández-León, S., Julia Ameneiro, J., 2014. Metabolic state along a summer north–south transect near the Antarctic Peninsula: a size spectra approach. Journal of Plankton Research, 36(4), 1074-1091.

Irigoien X., Klevjer, T.A., Røstad, A., Martinez, U., Boyra, G., Acuña, J.L., Bode, A., Echevarria, F., González-Gordillo, J.I., Hernández-León, S., Agustí, S., Akanes, D.L., Duarte, C.M., Kaartvedt, S., 2014. Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean. Nature Communications, 5, 3271

Moyano, M., Rodríguez, J. M., Benítez-Barrios, V., Hernández-León, S., 2014. Larval fish distribution and retention in the Canary Current system during the weak upwelling season. Fisheries Oceanography, 23(3), 191-209.

Sangrà, P., García-Muñoz, C., García, C. M., Marrero-Díaz, A., Sobrino, C., Mouriño-Carballido, B., Aguiar-González, B., Henríquez-Pastene, C., Rodríguez-Santana, A., Lubián, L. M., Hernández-Arencibia, M., Hernández-León, S., Vázquez, E., Estrada-Allis, S. N., 2014. Coupling between the upper ocean layer variability and size-fractionated phytoplankton in a non-nutrient-limited environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 499, 35-46.

Benavides, M., Arístegui, J., Agawin, N. S. R., Hernández-León, S., López Cancio, J. L., 2013. Enhancement of nitrogen fixation rates by unicellular diazotrophs versus Trichodesmium after a dust deposition event in the Canary Islands. Limnology and Oceanography, 58, 267-275.

García-Muñoz, C., López-Urrutia, A., Lubián, L., García, C., Hernández-León, S., 2013. A comparison of primary production models in an area of high mesoscale variability (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Journal of Sea Research.

Hernández-León, S., Sangrà, P., Lehette, P., Lubián, L., Almeida, C., Putzeys, S., Bécognée, P., Andrade, M. P., 2013. Zooplankton biomass and metabolism in the frontal zones of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Journal of Marine Systems, 111-112, 196-207.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., 2013. Temporal and alongshore distribution of decapod larvae in the oceanic island of Gran Canaria (NW Africa). Journal of Plankton Research, 35(2), 309-322.

Schmoker, C., Hernández-León, S., 2013. Stratification effects on the plankton of the subtropical Canary Current. Progress in Oceanography, 119, 24-31.

Schmoker, C., Hernández-León, S., Calbet, A., 2013. Microzooplankton grazing in the oceans: impacts, data variability, knowledge gaps and future directions. Journal of Plankton Research (accepted).

Schmoker, C., Ojeda, A., Hernández-León, S., 2013. Patterns of plankton communities in subtropical waters off the Canary Islands during the late winter bloom.

Fraile-Nuez, E., González-Dávila, M., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Arístegui, J., Alonso-González, I. J., Hernández-León, S., Blanco, M. J., Rodríguez-Santana, A., Hernández-Guerra, A., Gelado-Caballero, M. D., Eugenio, F., Marcello, J., de Armas, D., Domínguez-Yanes, J. F., Montero, M. F., Laetsch, D. R., Vélez-Belchí, P., Ramos, A., Ariza, A. V., Comas-Rodríguez, I., Benítez-Barrios, V. M., 2012. The submarine volcano eruption of El Hierro Island: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response. Nature Scientific Reports , 2, 486.

Herrera, I., Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Effect of temperature and food concentration on the relationship between growth and AARS activity in Paracartia grani nauplii. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 416-417, 101-109.

Lehette, P., Tovar-Sánchez, A., Duarte, C., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Krill excretion and its effect on primary production. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 459, 29–38.

Schmoker, C., Arístegui, J., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Planktonic biomass variability during a late winter bloom in the subtropical waters off the Canary Islands. Journal of Marine Systems, 95, 24-31.

Teira, E., Mouriño-Carballido, B., Martínez-García, S., Sobrino, C., Ameneiro, J., Hernández-León, S., Vázquez, F., 2012. Primary production and bacterial carbon metabolism around South Shetland Islands in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I 69, 70-81.

Benítez-Barrios, V. M., Pelegrí, J. L., Hernández-Guerra, A., Lwiza, K. M. M., Gomis, D., Vélez-Belchí, P., Hernández-León, S., 2011. Three-Dimensional Circulation in the NW Africa Coastal Transition Zone. Progress in Oceanography 91, 516-533.

Brochier, T., Mason, E., Moyano, M., Berraho, A., Colas, F., Sangrà, P., Hernández-León, S., Ettahiri, O., Lett, C., 2011. Ichthyoplankton transport from the African coast to the Canary Islands. Journal of Marine System, 89, 109-122.

Putzeys, S., Yebra, L., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Hernández-León, S., 2011. Influence of the late winter bloom on migrant zooplankton metabolism and its implications on export fluxes. Journal of Marine Systems, 88, 553-562.

Schmoker, C., Thor, P., Hernández-León, S., Hansen, B. W., 2011. Feeding, growth and metabolism of the marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dominans. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 65, 65-73.

Hernández-León, S., Franchy, G., Moyano, M., Menéndez, I., Schmoker, C., Putzeys, S., 2010. Carbon sequestration and zooplankton lunar cycles: Could we be missing a major component of the biological pump? Limnology and Oceanography, 55, 2503-2512.

Lehette P., Hernández-León, S., 2010. Carbon dioxide production rates of marine epipelagic copepods in subtropical waters the late winter bloom. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 385, 38-43.

Moyano, M., Hernández-León, S., 2010. Intra- and interannual variability in the larval fish assemblage off Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) over 2005-2007. Marine Biology, 158, 257–273.

Robinson, C., Steinberg, D. K., Koppelmann, R., Robison, B. H., Anderson, T. R., Arístegui, J., Carlson, C. A., Frost, J. R., Ghiglione, J. F., Hernández-León, S., Jackson, G. A., Quéguiner, B., Ragueneau, O., Rassoulzadegan, F., Tamburini, C., Tanaka, T., Wishner, K. F., Zhang, J., 2010. Mesopelagic zone ecology and biogeochemistry – a synthesis. Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 1504-1518.

Arístegui, J., Barton, E. D., Alvarez Salgado, X. A., Santos, A. M. P., Figueiras, F. G., Kifani, S., Hernández-León, S., Mason, E., Machu, E., Demarcq, H., 2009. Sub-regional ecosystem variability in the Canary Current upwelling (Review). Progress in Oceanography, 83, 33-48.

Bécognée, P., Moyano, M., Almeida, C., Rodríguez, J. M., Fraile-Nuez, E., Hernández-Guerra, A., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Mesoscale distribution of clupeoid larvae in an upwelling filament trapped by a quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy off Northwest Africa, Deep-Sea Research, 56, 330-343.

Hernández-León, S., 2009. Top-down effects and carbon flux in the ocean: A hypothesis. Journal of Marine Systems, 78, 576-581.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2009. Spatial variability of planktonic invertebrate larvae in the Canary Islands area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 90(6), 1217-1225.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2009. Horizontal distribution of invertebrate larvae around the oceanic island of Gran Canaria: the effect of mesoscale variability. Scientia Marina, 73(4): 761-771.

Lehette, P., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Zooplankton biomass estimation from digitized images: A comparison between subtropical and Antarctic organisms. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods, 7, 304-308.

Moyano, M., Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Larval fish abundance and distribution during the late winter bloom off Gran Canaria Island, Canary Island. Fisheries Oceanography, 18, 51-61.

Moyano, M., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Temporal and along shelf distribution of the larval fish assemblage at Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. Scientia Marina, 73, 85-96.

Rodríguez, J. M., Moyano, M., Hernández-León, S., 2009. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African coastal transition zone: A review. Progress in Oceanography, 83, 314-321.

Tovar-Sánchez, A., Duarte, C. M., Hernández-León, S., Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A., 2009. Impact of submarine hydrothermal vents on the metal composition of krill and its excretion products. Marine Chemistry, 113, 129-136.

Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., 2009. Metabolism and biomass vertical distribution of zooplankton in the Bransfield Strait during the austral summer of 2000. Polar Research, 28, 415-425.

Brochier, T., Ramzi, A., Lett, C., Machu, E., Berraho, A., Freon, P., Hernández-León, S., 2008. Modelling sardine and anchovy ichthyoplankton transport in the Canary Current System. Journal of Plankton Research, 30, 1133-1146.

Hernández-León, S., Montero, I., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Bruce-Lauli, E., 2008. Mesozooplankton biomass and indices of grazing and metabolic activity in Antarctic waters. Polar Biology, 31, 1373-1382.

Hernández-León, S., 2008. Natural variability of fisheries and lunar illumination: A hypothesis. Fish and Fisheries, 9, 138-154.

Hernández-León, S., Fraga, C., Ikeda, T., 2008. A global estimation of mesozooplankton ammonium excretion in the open ocean. Journal of Plankton Research, 30, 577-585.

Baltar, F., Arístegui, J., Herndl, G. J., Gasol, J. M., Hernández-León, S., 2007. Strong coastal-ocean and surface-depth gradients in prokaryotic assemblage structure and activity in a coastal transition zone region. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 50, 63-74.

Echevarría, F., Acuña, J. L., Hernández-León, S., Saiz, E., Santos, A. M. P., Barange, M., 2007. Ecological functioning of the Iberian Seas: A synthesis of GLOBEC research in Spain and Portugal. Progress in Oceanography, 74, 95-97.

Hernández-León, S., Gómez, M., Arístegui, J., 2007. Mesozooplankton in the Canary Current System: The coastal-ocean transition zone. Progress in Oceanography, 74, 397-421.

Tovar-Sánchez, A., Duarte, C. M., Hernández-León, S., Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A., 2007. Krill as a central node for iron cycling in the Southern Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L11601.

Arístegui, J., Alvarez-Salgado, X. A., Barton, E. D., Figueiras, F. G., Hernández León, S., Roy, C., Santos, A. M. P., 2006. Oceanography and Fisheries of the Canary Current/Iberian region of the Eastern North Atlantic. In: A.R. Robinson & K.W. Berink (ed.), THE SEA: Volume 14B – The Global Coastal Ocean: Interdisciplinary Regional Studies and Syntheses. Harvard University Press. 877-931.

Bécognée, P., Barrera, A., Almeida, C., Hernández-Guerra, A., Hernández-León, S., 2006. Annual cycle of clupeiform larvae around Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands. Fisheries Oceanography, 15, 4, 293-300.

Hernández-León, S., Montero, I., 2006. Zooplankton biomass estimated from digitalized images in Antarctic waters: A calibration exercise. Journal Geophysical Research, 111, C05S03.

Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2006. Vertical distribution of fish larvae in the Canaries-African coastal transition zone in summer. Marine Biology, 149, 885-897.

Yebra, L., Hirst, A., Hernández-León, S., 2006. Assessment of Calanus finmarchicus growth and dormancy using the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases method. Journal of Plankton Research, 28, 1191-1198.

Hernández-León, S., Ikeda, T., 2005. Zooplankton Respiration. In: Williams, P.L.B. and P. Del Giorgio (Eds.) Respiration in aquatic ecosystems, Oxford University Press, 57-82.

Hernández-León, S., Ikeda, T., 2005. A Global Assessment of Mesozooplankton Respiration in the Ocean. J. Plankton Res., 27, 153-158.

Pelegrí, J. L., Arístegui, J., Cana, L., González-Dávila, M., Hernández-Guerra, A., Hernández-León, S., Marrero-Díaz, A., Montero, M. F., Sangrà, P., Santana-Casiano, J. M., 2005. Coupling between the open ocean and the coastal upwelling region off Northwest Africa: Water recirculation and offshore pumping of organic matter. Journal of Marine System, 54, 3-37.

Putzeys, S., Hernández-León, S., 2005. A model of the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Canary Island waters: Implication for the active carbon flux. J. Sea Res., 53, 213-222.

Yebra, L., Almeida, C., Hernández-León, S., 2005. Vertical distribution of zooplankton and active flux across an anticyclonic eddy in the Canary Island waters. Deep-Sea Res. I, 52, 69-83.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Yebra, L., Arístegui, J., 2004. Zooplankton biomass and indices of grazing and metabolism during a Late Winter Bloom in subtropical waters. Mar. Biol., 145, 1191-1200.

Rodríguez, J. M., Barton, E. D., Hernández-León, S., Arístegui, J., 2004. The influence of mesoscale physical processes on the larval fish community in the Canaries CTZ, in summer. Progr. Oceanogr., 62, 171-188.

Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., 2004. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases activity as a growth index in zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 26(3), 351-356.

Yebra, L., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., 2004. The effect of upwelling filaments and island-induced eddies on indices of feeding, respiration and growth in copepods. Progr. Oceanogr., 62, 151-169.

Fernández de Puelles, M. L., Grás, D., Hernández-León, S., 2003. Annual cycle of zooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in the Balearic Sea, Western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology, 24(2), 123-139.

Schmoker, C., Hernández-León, S., 2003. The effect of food on the respiration rates of Daphnia magna using a flow-through system. Scientia Marina, 67, 361-365.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Gómez, M., Rodríguez, J. M., Arístegui, J., 2002. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding and metabolism in relation to an upwelling filament off the Northwest Africa. Journal of Marine Research, 60, 327-346.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Yebra, L., Arístegui, J., 2002. Lunar cycle of zooplankton biomass in subtropical waters: biogeochemical implications. Journal of Plankton Research, 24, 935-939.

Tett, P., Arístegui, J., Barton, D., Basterretxea, G., de Armas, J. D., Escánez, J., Hernández-León, S., Lorenzo, L., Montero, M. F., 2002. Steady-state DCM dynamics in Canaries waters. Deep-Sea Research II, 49, 3543-3559.

Arístegui, J., Hernández-León, S., Montero, M. F., Gómez, M., 2001. The seasonal planktonic cycle in coastal waters of the Canary Islands. Scientia Marina, 65, 51-58.

Hernández-León, S., Gómez, M., Pagazaurtundua, M., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Montero, I., Almeida, C., 2001. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in Canary Island waters: implications for export flux. Deep-Sea Research I, 48, 1071-1092.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Bécognée, P., Moreno, I., 2001. Diel feeding behaviour of krill in the Gerlache Strait, Antarctica. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 223, 235-242.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Yebra, L., Arístegui, J., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., García-Braun, J., 2001. Zooplankton abundance in subtropical waters: Is there a lunar cycle? Scientia Marina, 65, 59-64.

Hernández-León, S., C. Almeida, C., Gómez, M., Torres, S., Montero, I., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., 2001. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding and metabolism in island-generated eddies around Gran Canaria. J. Mar. Syst., 30, 51-66.

Rodríguez, J. M., Barton, E. D., Eve, L., Hernández-León, S., 2001. Mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton distribution around Gran Canaria, an oceanic island in the NE Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research I, 48, 2161-2183.

Hernández-León, S., 2000. Enzymatic method - electron transfer system. In: Zooplankton Methodology Manual. R.P. Harris, P. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H.R. Skjoldal, and M. Huntley, Eds. Academic Press, pp 506-510.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Gómez, M., Montero, I., 2000. Biomass and potential feeding, respiration and growth of zooplankton in the Bransfield Strait (Antarctic Peninsula) during austral summer. Polar Biology, 23, 679-690.

Ikeda, T., Torres, J. J., Hernández-León, S., Geiger, S. P., 2000. Metabolism. In: Zooplankton Methodology Manual. R. P. Harris, P. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H.R. Skjoldal, and M. Huntley, Eds. Academic Press, 455-532.

Hernández-León, S., Torres, S., Gómez, M., Montero, I., Almeida, C., 1999. Biomass and metabolism of zooplankton in the Bransfield Strait (Antarctic Peninsula) during austral spring. Polar Biology, 21, 214-219.

Hernández-León, S., Postel, L., Arístegui, J., Gómez, M., Montero, M. F., Torres, S., Almeida, C., Kühner, E., Brenning, U., Hagen, E., 1999. Large-scale and mesoscale distribution of plankton biomass and metabolic activity in the Northeastern Central Atlantic. Journal of Oceanography, 55, 471-482.

Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 1999. Mesoscale distribution of fish larvae in relation to an upwelling filament off Northwest Africa. Deep-Sea Research I, 46, 1969-1984.

Barton, E.D., Arístegui, J., Tett, P., García-Braun, J., Hernández-León, S., Nykjaer, L., Almeida, C., Almunia, J., Ballesteros, S., Basterretxea, G., Escánez, J., García-Weil, L., Hernández-Guerra, A., López-Laatzen, F., Molina, R., Montero, M. F., Navarro-Pérez, E., Rodríguez-Pérez, J. M., Van Lenning, K., Vélez, H., Wild, K., 1998. The Transition Zone Of The Canary Current Upwelling Region. Progress In Oceanography, 41, 455-504.

Hernández-León, S., 1998. Annual cycle of epiplanktonic copepods in Canary Island waters. Fisheries Oceanography, 7, 252-257.

Hernández-León, S., Arístegui, J., Gómez, M., Torres, S., Almeida, C., Montero, M. F., Ojeda, A., 1998. Mesozooplankton metabolism and its effect on chlorophyll and primary production in slope waters of the Canary Islands. Annales de L´Institute Oceanographique de Paris, 74,127-138.

Arístegui, J., Tett, P., Hernández-Guerra, A., Basterretxea, G., Montero, M. F., Wild, K., Sangrá, P., Hernández-León, S., Cantón, M., García-Braun, J. A., Pacheco, M., Barton, E. D., 1997. The influence of island-generated eddies on chlorophyll distribution: a study of mesoscale variation around Gran Canaria. Deep-Sea Research I, 44, 71-96.

Hernández-León, S., Torres, S., 1997. The relationship between ammonia excretion and GDH activity in marine zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 19, 587-601.

Gómez, M., Torres, S., Hernández-León, S., 1996. Modification of the electron transport system (ETS) method for routine measurements of respiratory rates of zooplankton. South African Journal of Marine Science, 17(1): 15-20.

Hernández-León, S., Gómez. M., 1996. Factors affecting the Respiration/ETS ratio in marine zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 18: 239-255.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Montero, I., 1995. The use of aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) activity to estimate growth rates in zooplankton. ICES Journal of Marine Sciences, 52, 377-383.

Arístegui, J., Sangrà, P., Hernández-León, S., Cantón, M., Hernández-Guerra, A., Kerling, J., 1994. Island-induced eddies in the Canary Islands. Deep-Sea Research, 41, 1509-1525.

Hernández-León, S., 1991. Accumulation of Mesozooplankton in a wake area as a causative mechanism of the "Island Mass Effect". Marine Biology, 109, 141-147.